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Glossary

The WP2 team together with the LC will agree on key concepts including references to the relevant sources and acronyms to be published in a ‘public glossary’ via the project’s website. The aim of the public glossary is to ensure a public understanding of Xt-EHR’s results/work available from the project’s website.

Concept preferred name
Acronym/Synonym
Definition
Definition Source
Note

Big Data in Health

Big Data in Health refers to large routinely or automatically collected datasets, which are electronically captured and stored. It is reusable in the sense of multipurpose data and comprises the fusion and connection of existing databases for the purpose of improving health and health system performance. It does not refer to data collected for a specific study.

Continuity of Care

Efficient, effective, ethical care delivered through interaction, integration, co-ordination and sharing of information between different healthcare actors over time.

ISO/FDIS 27269

Cross-Border Healthcare

‘cross-border healthcare’ means healthcare provided or prescribed in a Member State other than the Member State of affiliation;

Digital Health

Digital Health’ is a broad umbrella term encompassing e-health, as well as developing areas such as the use of advanced computer sciences (for example, in the fields of “big data”, genomics and artificial intelligence).

Digital health literacy (or eHealth literacy)

Digital health literacy (or eHealth literacy) is the ability to seek, find, understand, appraise health information from electronic sources and apply the knowledge gained to addressing or solving a health problem.

eHealth

eHealth is the use of ICT in health products, services and processes combined with organisational change in healthcare systems and new skills, in order to improve health of citizens, efficiency and productivity in healthcare delivery, and the economic and social value of health.

Electronic Health Record

EHR

Electronic health record means a collection of electronic health data related to a natural person and collected in the health system, processed for healthcare purposes.

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the European Health Data Space

Electronic Identification

eID

The process of using person identification data in electronic form uniquely representing either a natural or legal person, or a natural person representing a legal person.

Electronic Prescription

ePrescription

(1)    A medicinal prescription issued and transmitted electronically.

(2)    The concept of the ePrescription service is understood as the ordering of a prescription in software, the electronic transmission of that prescription from the Prescription provider to a Dispense provider, the electronic dispensing of the medicine and the electronic transmission of the dispensed medicine information from the dispenser provider to the prescription provider.

The ePrescription service is made up of electronic prescribing and electronic dispensing:

  1. A medicinal prescription issued and transmitted electronically.

  2. The concept of the ePrescription service is understood as the ordering of a prescription in software, the electronic transmission of that prescription from the Prescription provider to a Dispense provider, the electronic dispensing of the medicine and the electronic transmission of the dispensed medicine information from the dispenser provider to the prescription provider.

The ePrescription service is made up of electronic prescribing and electronic dispensing:

  • ePrescribing is defined as prescribing of medicines in software by a health care professional legally authorized to do so, for dispensing once it has been electronically transmitted, at the pharmacy.

  • eDispensing is defined as the act of electronically retrieving a prescription and giving out the medicine to the patient as indicated in the corresponding ePrescription. Once the medicine is dispensed, the dispenser shall report via software the information about the dispensed medicine(s).

  1. Medical prescription, provided in electronic format: "A prescription is understood as a set of data like drug ID, drug name, strength, form, dosage, indication or as a list of drugs together covering the patients current medication. The data set might differ slightly between the countries.“ In the context of eHealth DSI, this definition of ePrescription data will apply. However, it is not excluded that the use of the infrastructure and the service developed in eHealth DSI might be afterwards extended to handle ePrescription data different from medicinal prescriptions.

Source (1): Commission Recommendation 2008/594/EC on cross-border interoperability of electronic health records - Point 3(f), PS/eP guidelines

 

Source (2): MyHealth@EU Requirements Catalogue

 

Source (3): Identity Management in MyHealth@EU

European Electronic Health Record Exchange Format

EEHRXF

The Commission Recommendation on a European Electronic Health Record exchange format of 6 February 2019 sets out a framework for the development of a European electronic health record exchange format in order to achieve secure, interoperable, cross-border access to, and exchange of, electronic health data in the Union.

European Health Data Space

EHDS

The creation of a European Data Space is one of the priorities of the Commission 2019-2025, including the health sector. In the Communication on “A European strategy for data” it states that the Commission will support the establishment of nine common European data spaces with one of them being the Common European health data space, which is essential for advances in preventing, detecting and curing diseases as well as for informed, evidence-based decisions to improve the accessibility, effectiveness and sustainability of the healthcare systems.

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the European Health Data Space

Health Professional

‘health professional’ means a doctor of medicine, a nurse responsible for general care, a dental practitioner, a midwife or a pharmacist within the meaning of Directive 2005/36/EC, or another professional exercising activities in the healthcare sector which are restricted to a regulated profession as defined in Article 3(1)(a) of Directive 2005/36/EC, or a person considered to be a health professional according to the legislation of the Member State of treatment

Healthcare

Care activities, services, management or supplies related to the health of an individual.

Healthcare Provider

care provider,
health provider,
health service provider,
healthcare service provider

Definition 1: Healthcare actor that is able to be assigned one or more care period mandates


Definition 2: ‘healthcare provider’ means any natural or legal person or any other entity legally providing healthcare on the territory of a Member State;
Source: Directive 2011/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2011 on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare

Notes Definition 1:
Note 1: Healthcare Provider is described in the Attribute Collection HEALTHCARE PROVIDER

Note 2: The personnel of a healthcare organization that is a healthcare provider may include both healthcare professionals and others which participate in the provision of healthcare.
Note 3: According to the definition in ISO 13940:2015, organizations solely responsible for the funding,payment, or reimbursement of healthcare provision are not healthcare providers; for the purpose of this International Standard they are considered as healthcare third parties.

International Patient Summary Data Set

IPS Data Set

IPS Dataset

Minimal, non-exhaustive set of data elements required for the international patient summary.

 

Note 1: ‘Minimal’ and ‘Non-exhaustive’ criteria are derived from the eHN Guideline for the patient summary.

Note 2: ‘Minimal’ reflects the ideas of ‘summary’ and the need to be concise, but also alludes to the existence of a core set of data elements that all health care professionals can use; it is intended to be a speciality agnostic and condition independent set.  It does not imply that all the items in the data set will be used in every summary. It is also possible to refine the extract from a record such that the content of the summary is more relevant to a particular condition (e.g. asthma) but no asthma-specific elements will be specified in this standard.  The IPS Document or IPS 

can be extended by non-IPS standard condition-specific data.

Note 3 to entry: ‘Non-exhaustive’ recognizes that the ideal data set is not closed, and is likely to be extended, not just in terms of requirement evolution, but also pragmatically in instances of use.  However, such data are outside the scope of this current standard until review.

Note 4 to entry: The initial focus of use for IPS is unscheduled care but the IPS can also be used within scheduled care scenarios; scheduled care or planned care, would probably have access to the full EHR and provide a more extensive set of data but would also include the IPS Data Set elements.

mHealth includes the use of mobile communication devices in health and well-being services covering various technological solutions, which support self-management and measure vital signs such as heart rate, blood glucose level, blood pressure, body temperature and brain activity. WHO defines Mobile Health

mHealth

mHealth as “medical and public health practice supported by devices, such as mobile phones, patient monitoring devices, personal digital assistants, and other wireless devices.

Patient Summary

PS, health summary record

Health record extract comprising a standardized collection of clinical and contextual information (retrospective, concurrent, prospective) that provides a snapshot in time of a subject of care’s health information and healthcare.

Note 1: The eHN Guideline definition is:  A Patient Summary is an identifiable “dataset of essential and understandable health information” [that is made available] “at the point of care to deliver safe patient care during unscheduled care [and planned care] with its maximal impact in the unscheduled care”; [defined at a high level as:] “the minimum set of information needed to assure Health Care Coordination and the continuity of care”.

Point of Care

PoC

Location where direct healthcare activities are performed.

Refined eHealth European interoperability framework

ReEIF

The refined eHealth European interoperability framework (ReEIF) was adopted by the eHealth Network in November 2015. It represents a common refined framework for managing interoperability and standardisation challenges in the eHealth domain in Europe, offering a framework of terms and methodologies for reaching a common language, and a common starting point for the analysis of problems and the description of eHealth solutions throughout Europe.

Telehealth

Telehealth is a subset of eHealth and refers to the delivery of healthcare at a distance – according to Greek language, prefix “tele” means “far” or “at distance”, as explained by Varnosafaderani.
It comprehends the delivery of healthcare services by all healthcare professionals, where distance is a critical factor, through the use of ICT to provide clinical and non-clinical services - preventative, promotive and curative healthcare services, research and evaluation, health administration services and continuing education of healthcare providers.
Telehealth is a newer and broader term referring to remote healthcare, including services provided using telemedicine, as well as interaction with automated systems or information resources.

Telemedicine

Telemedicine is a subset of telehealth, as concluded by Sood et al. in a 2007 study after analyzing 104 peer-reviewed definitions of telemedicine. Although some authors inadequately use it to describe the delivery of healthcare services at a distance only by physicians, telemedicine is distinguished from telehealth in the sense that the former focuses on the curative scope of the healthcare services by all healthcare professionals, excluding therefore the preventive and promotive aspects of healthcare as remote training, administrative and educational services.
According to Bashshur, Telemedicine involves the use of modern information technology, especially two-way interactive audio/video communications, computers and telemetry to deliver health services to remote patients and to facilitate information exchange between primary care physicians and specialists at some distance from each other (Bashshur, et al., 1997).

Unscheduled Care

unanticipated care,

unplanned care

Healthcare service for an unexpected demand for care.

Note 1:  In this scenario, the assistance needed can be emergency or non-emergency.

Note 2: The International Patient Summary is presumed to be the information needed to quickly help advise, diagnose, and/or treat the person requiring assistance.

Wellness application

Wellness application means any appliance or software intended by the manufacturer to be used by a natural person for processing electronic health data for other purposes than healthcare, such as well-being and pursuing healthy life-styles;

X-eHealth Acronyms List

The following list presents relevant acronyms in the X-eHealth project

Acronym

ATC

CBeHIS

CDA

CEF

CEN

CEN IPS

CEN/TC 251

CIA

CT

DICOM

DSI

eDispensation

EEHRxF

eEIF

EHDS

eHDSI / eHealth DSI

eHealth

eHN

EHR

EHRxF

eID

EIF

EN

eP /ePrescription

epSOS

e-SENS

EU

EURO-CAS

EVS Client

EXPAND

FAQs

FHIR

FHIR IG

FSH

GDPR

GP

H2020

HL7

HL7 CDA

HL7 FHIR

HL7 IPS

ICT

IHE

IHE PCC

IHE XDS

IHE XDS-I

IHE XCA

IHE XCA-I

IHE XDR

IHE XDR-I

IHE MHD

IHE XDM

IHTSDO

IPI

IPS

ISMS

ISO

IT

ITIL

JIC

JIC PSSS

JSON

KPI's

LOINC

LSP

mHealth

MTC

MVC

NCP

NCPeH

NHS

OASIS TALM

OSI

PHIRI

PS

ReEIF

SNOMED CT

SOA

SUT

TEHDAS

TEN-T

TEN-T EA

UML

WP

XML

Term

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Code

Cross Border eHealth Information Services

Clinical Document Architecture

Connecting Europe Facility

Comité Européen de Normalization (European Committee for Standardization, a federation of 34 national standards bodies that are also ISO member bodies)

CEN International Patient Summary

CEN Technical Committee 251 Health Informatics

Confidentiality, Integrity and Accountability

Clinical Terminologies

Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine

Digital Service Infrastructure

Electronic Dispensation

eHealth European Interoperability Framework

eHealth Digital Service Infrastructure

eHealth Network

Electronic Health Record

European Interoperability Framework

European Standard

Electronic Prescription

Smart Open Services for European Patients

Electronic Simple European Networked Services

European Union

Conformity Assessment Scheme for Europe

External Validator Service Client

Expanding Health Data Interoperability Services

Frequently Asked Questions

Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources

FHIR Implementation Guide

FHIR SHortland files

General Data Protection Regulation

General Practitioner

Horizon 2020 Programme

Health Level 7

HL7 Clinical Document Architecture

HL7 Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources

HL7 International Patient Summary

Information and communications technology

Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise

IHE Patient Care Coordination

IHE Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing

IHE Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging

IHE Cross Community Access

IHE Cross Community Access for Imaging

IHE Cross-Enterprise Document Reliable Interchange

IHE Cross-Enterprise Document Reliable Interchange for Imaging

IHE Mobile access to Health Documents

IHE Cross-Enterprise Document Media Interchange

International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation

International Projects and Interoperability

International Patient Summary

Information Security Management System

International Organization for Standardization

Information Technology

Information Technology Infrastructure Library

Joint Initiative Council

JIC Patient Summary Standards Set

JavaScript Object Notation

Key Performance Indicators

Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes

Large Scale Pilot

Master Translation/Transcodification Catalogue

Model-View-Controller 

National Contact Point

National Contact Point for eHealth

National Health Service

OASIS Test Assertion Markup Language

Operations, Security and Infrastructure

Population Health Information Research Infrastruture Project

Patient Summary

Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms

Service-Oriented Architecture

System Under Test

Joint Action Towards the European Health Data Space

Trans-European Transport Network

Trans-European Transport Network Executive Agency

Unified Modeling Language

Work Package

EXtensible Markup Language

*Status 23.05.2024

Catalogue

We recommend to consult the following glossaries for supplementary reading:

                    MyHealth@EU glossary established and maintained by the European Commission.  Available with Log-In under                                             https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/wikis/pages/viewpage.action?spaceKey=EHDSI&title=MyHealth@EU+Glossary

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                     The ISO online browsing platform provides access to the most up to date content in ISO standards, graphical symbols,                               codes or terms and definitions and is available under https://www.iso.org/obp/ui#home.

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                      Contsys provides a comprehensive list of concepts related to the continuity of care by Oughtibridge Ltd. under                                            https://contsys.org/index.

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                       The TEHDAS1 Joint Action developed European principles for the secondary use of health data in 2021–2023. The project                         team has developed a glossary which is available under https://tehdas.eu/app/uploads/2022/01/tehdas-glossary.pdf.

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                          To establish a common understanding the X-eHealth project team established, maintained and updated two glossary                                types in the course of the project: A project internal glossary with a more comprehensive collection of concepts and                                    acronyms and a public glossary with key concepts and acronyms ensuring a public understanding of X-eHealth’s work.                                The X-eHealth glossary laid the foundation for the Xt-EHR glossary. It can be found under:                                                                              https://zenodo.org/records/7896165.

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The following criteria were defined by the project team for including a glossary in the eHealth glossaries catalogue:

  • The glossary provides concepts/abbreviations commonly encountered in eHealth

  • The glossary is publicly available in an online accessible format

  • Concepts and the glossary itself are available in English language

  • It is preferably clear how the glossary was developed

  • EU scope

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